What is a chromosome apex

Chromosome types

FIGURE 1 Metaphase plates. A: Alstroemeria magnifica subsp. magenta (2n = 16). B: Bomarea salsilla (2n = 18). C: Famatina cisandina (2n = 18). D: Phycella cyrtanthoides (2n = 16). E: Rhodolirium laetum (2n = 16). F: Rhodophiala advena (2n = 18). G: Rhodophiala aff. maculata (2n = 18). H: Centaurea melitensis (2n = 24). I: Centaurea solstitialis (2n = 16). J: Erigeron andicola (2n = 36). K: Haplopappus donianus (2n = 10). L: Hypochaeris radicata (Baeza 4210, 2n = 8). FIGURE 1. Metaphase plates. A: Alstroemeria magnifica subsp. magenta (2n = 16). B: Bomarea salsilla (2n = 18). C: Famatina cisandina (2n = 18). D: Phycella cyrtanthoides (2n = 16). E: Rhodolirium laetum (2n = 16). F: Rhodophiala advena (2n = 18). G: Rhodophiala aff. maculata (2n = 18). H: Centaurea melitensis (2n = 24). I: Centaurea solstitialis (2n = 16). J: Erigeron andicola (2n = 36). K: Haplopappus donianus (2n = 10). L: Hypochaeris radicata (Baeza 4210, 2n = 8).

CONTINUATION FIGURE 1. Metaphase plates. LL: Hypochaeris radicata (Baeza 4259, 2n = 8). M: Picris echioides (2n = 10). N: Picris echioides (2n = 4x = 20). O: Taraxacum officinale (3n =3x = 24). P: Taraxacum officinale (2n = 4x = 32). Q: Astragalus looseri (2n = 22). R: Teline monspessulana (2n = 48). S: Ulex europaeus subsp. europaeus (2n = 6x = 96). T: Persea lingue (2n = 24). U: Montiopsis potentilloides (2n = 20). The bar corresponds to 5 μm. CONTINUATION FIGURE 1. Metaphase plates. LL: Hypochaeris radicata (Baeza 4259, 2n = 8). M: Picris echioides (2n = 10). N: Picris echioides (2n = 4x = 20). O: Taraxacum officinale (3n =3x = 24). P: Taraxacum officinale (2n = 4x = 32). Q: Astragalus looseri (2n = 22). R: Teline monspessulana (2n = 48). S: Ulex europaeus subsp. europaeus (2n = 6x = 96). T: Persea lingue (2n = 24). U: Montiopsis potentilloides (2n = 20). Scale bar 5 μm.

Human chromosomes

Chromosomes come in pairs. Normally, each cell in the human body has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 chromosomes in total), half of which come from the mother and half from the father.Two of the chromosomes (the X and Y) determine male or female gender and are called sex chromosomes:The mother contributes an X chromosome to the child, while the father can contribute either an X chromosome or a Y chromosome.It is the father’s chromosome that determines whether the baby is a male or female.It is the father’s chromosome that determines whether the baby is a male or female.The remaining chromosomes are called autosomal chromosomes and are known as autosomal chromosomes. It is the father’s chromosome that determines whether the baby is a male or female.The remaining chromosomes are called autosomal and are known as chromosome pairs 1 through 22.Images.

Perle MA, Stein CK. Applications of cytogenetics in modern pathology.In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 71.Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. 24th ed. F.A. Davis Company; 2021. www.tabers.com/tabersonline. Accessed April 29, 2021.

What is a gene?

Eukaryotic chromosomes are made up of two strands of DNA repeated in a spiral shape and are considerably larger than prokaryotic chromosomes.    To maintain their shape, they require the participation of chromosomes. It is these chromosomes that appear in human cells.

Human chromosomes encode all the characteristics we have. As you know we have two sexes, male and female. The differences between the two sexes are genetically encoded in the sex chromosomes.

What is a chromosome

In biology and cytogenetics, a chromosome (from the Greek χρώμα, -τος chroma, color and σώμα, -τος soma, body or element) is each of the highly organized structures, consisting of DNA and proteins, that contains most of the genetic information of a living being.

Schematic diagram of an already duplicated and condensed eukaryotic chromosome (in mitotic metaphase). (1) Chromatid, each of the identical parts of a chromosome after DNA duplication. (2) Centromere, the place on the chromosome at which the two chromatids touch. (3) Short arm. (4) Long arm.

The pairs of homologous chromosomes shown in the image have, in addition, a fundamental genetic similarity: they have the same genes located at the same places along the chromosome (such places are called locus or loci in the plural). This indicates that each member of the pair of homologues carries genetic information for the same characteristics of the organism. In sexually reproducing organisms, one member of the homologous chromosome pair comes from the mother (through the egg) and the other from the father (through the sperm). Therefore, as a consequence of biparental inheritance, each diploid organism has two copies of each of the genes, each located on one of the homologous chromosomes.